KERALA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY

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Appendix 2

Average nutrient content of common manures and fertilizers

Material

Nutrient content (%)

N

P2O5

K2O

Ammonium sulphate

20.5

-

-

Ammonium sulphate nitrate

26.0

-

-

Ammonium nitrate

33.5

-

-

Ammonium phosphate

20.0

20.0

-

Calcium ammonium nitrate

20.5 / 25.0

-

-

Nitrate of soda

16.5

-

-

Urea

46.0

-

-

Superphosphate (single)

-

18.0

-

Superphosphate (double)

-

35.0

-

Superphosphate (triple)

-

46.0

-

Mussooriephos

-

18-20

-

Rajphos

-

18-20

-

Muriate of potash

-

-

50 / 60

Bone meal

3.5

21.0

-

Fish meal

4.1

3.9

0.3-1.5

Poultry manure

1.2-1.5

1.4 -1.8

0.8-0.9

Sheep manure

0.8-1.6

0.3-0.4

0.3-0.4

FYM

1.0

0.5

1.0

Compost

0.5

0.4

0.8

Groundnut cake

7.0

1.5

1.5

Castor cake

4.3

2.0

1.3

Neem cake

5.0

1.0

1.5

Gingelly cake

6.2

2.0

1.2

Coconut cake

3.0

1.9

1.8

Note: Composition of organic manures vary widely

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Appendix 3

Neutralizing value of liming materials

Liming material

Chemical formula

Neutralizing value

Calcium carbonate (powdered lime stone)

CaCO3

100

Burnt lime (quick lime)

CaO

179

Slaked lime

Ca(OH)2

136


Dolomite

CaMg(CO3)2

109



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Appendix 4

Conversion of nutrients (kg/ha) to common fertilizers (kg/ha)

Rate of application

Ammonium sulphate

(20% N)

Urea

(46% N)

Superphosphate

(18% P2O5)

Muriate of potash

(50% K2O)

(60% K2O)

10

50

22

56

20

17

20

100

43

111

40

33

30

150

65

167

60

50

40

200

87

222

80

67

50

250

109

278

100

83

60

300

130

333

120

100

70

350

152

389

140

117

80

400

174

444

160

133

90

450

196

500

180

150

100

500

217

556

200

167

110

550

239

611

220

183

120

600

261

667

240

200

130

650

283

722

260

217

140

700

304

778

280

233

150

750

326

833

300

250


 
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Appendix 5

Guide for mixing fertilizers

Muriate of

potash

Potassium

sulphate

Ammonium

sulphate

Calcium

ammonium

nitrate

Sodium

nitrate

Urea

Super-

phosphate

Ammonium

phosphate

Calcium

carbonate

 

y

y

y

Muriate of potash

y

y

y

Potassium sulphate

y

y

X

Ammonium sulphate

y

y

y

y

y

y

Calcium ammonium nitrate

y

y

y

y

y

Sodium nitrate

y

y

y

y

y

y

y

y

Urea

y

y

y

X

Superphosphate

y

y

y

X

Ammonium phosphate

X

y

X

X

Calcium carbonate


  Can be mixed
y   May be mixed only prior to application
X   Should not be mixed
 

Appendix 6

Calculation of insecticide and fungicide formulations

A. Calculation of insecticide formulation

I. Sprayable formulation

                        Quantity of insecticide formulation =

                                                                    Strength (per cent) required x Quantity of spray solution required (l)

 

                                                                    Strength (per cent) of formulation

 

e.g. :- Malathion 50 EC @ 0.2% required to prepare 10 litres (10,000 ml) of spray solution

 

                                = 0.2 x 10 x 1000 = 40 ml

                                               

                                            50

2. Granular formulation
                            Quantity of granular formulation (kg) =

                                                                                        100 x recommended rate (kg a.i ha-1) x Area (ha)

 

                                                                                        % a.i in the commercial formulation

 

                                e.g.:- cartap hydrochloride 4 G required to apply in one hectare @ 750 g a.i ha-1

 

                                                                    = 100 x 0.75 x 1 = 18.75 kg

 

                                                                                        4

B. Calculation of fungicide formulations

 

1) Wettable powder (WP)
                e.g:- carbendazim 50 wp (0.1%)

                Dissolve 1 g carbendazim 50 wp in 1 litre of water.


2) Emulsifiable concentrate (EC)

                e.g:- Kitazin 48 Ec (0.1%)

                Dissolve 1 ml Kitazin - 48 EC in 1 litre of water


 

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Appendix 7
 

HOME MADE INSECTICIDAL PREPARATIONS

KEROSENE EMULSION

Materials required

Kerosene             900 ml

Bar soap              50 g

Water                   20 litre

 

Method of preparation

Slice 50 g bar soap into fine flakes and dissolve in 450 ml of boiling water. Cool it and then add to 900 ml kerosene under violent agitation till the oil is fully emulsified. Dilute this stock solution by adding 15-20 litres of water for spraying. It is effective against many sucking insects.

 

TOBACCO DECOCTION

Materials required

Tobacco waste         100 g

Bar soap                   24 g

Water                        6 litre

 

Method of preparation

Soak 100 g of tobacco waste in 900 ml of water for 24 hours. Then squeeze the tobacco waste and remove all debris by filtering the extract through a muslin cloth or a strainer. Slice 24 g of bar soap into thin flakes and dissolve in 100 ml of water in another vessel. Pour the soap solution into the tobacco decoction under violent agitation. Dilute this stock solution by adding 6 litres of water. This can be recommeded for managing aphids and other soft bodied insects infesting vegetable crops.

 

NEEM SEED KERNEL EXTRACT (NSKE 3%)

Materials required

Neem seed kernel              30 g

Water                                 1 litre

 

Method of preparation

Grind neem seed kernel into coarse powder and put it in a small muslin cloth bag. Keep it immersed in 1 litre of water in a vessel for 12 hours. Thereafter, squeeze the cloth bag by dipping in water repeatedly till the water coming out from the cloth bag becomes clear. Squeeze the cloth bag thoroughly and then remove it. Now the 3% NSKE is ready for spraying.

 

NEEM OIL GARLIC EMULSION (2%)

Materials required

Neem oil             200 ml

Bar soap            50 g

Garlic                 200 g

Water                 9 litre

 

Method of preparation

Slice 50 g bar soap into thin flakes and dissolve in 500 ml of hot water by agitation. Pour the soap solution to 200 ml of neem oil slowly and stir rigorously. Grind 200 g of garlic by adding 300 ml of water. Filter the garlic extract through a muslin cloth and then add to the prepared neem oil soap emulsion. Dilute this one litre stock solution by adding 9 litre of water to get 10 litres of 2% neem oil garlic emulsion.

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Appendix 8
Preparation of common fungicides


Bordeaux mixture (1%)
Dissolve 1 kg of powdered copper sulphate crystals in 50 litres of water. In another 50 litres of water, prepare milk of lime with 1 kg of quick lime. Pour the copper sulphate solution into the milk of lime slowly stirring the mixture all the while. Test the mixture before use for the presence of free copper, which is harmful to the plants, by dipping a polished knife in it. If the blade shows a reddish colour due to the deposits of copper, add more lime till the blade is not stained on dipping. Always use wooden, earthen or copper vessels for the preparation of Bordeaux mixture.

In order to confer sticking qualities to Bordeaux mixture, rosin washing soda mixture, may be added. The addition of the sticker is particularly recommended for sprayings conducted during rainy season. For preparing the mixture, 10 litres of water out of 100 litres required for preparing Bordeaux mixture may be kept apart. Boil 10 litres of water, preferably in an earthen pot and add 500 g of good quality washing soda (sodium carbonate). Boil again until the solution becomes slightly dark in colour. Add 1 kg of powdered rosin (arpoos) in the boiling washing soda solution. Reduce the flame for avoiding frothing, foaming and spilling over. Boil the solution for 5-10 minutes till black bubbles appear. Cool the solution until the temperature reaches below 45C. The cooled mixture (10 litres) is then added slowly to the prepared Bordeaux mixture (90 litres) under vigorous stirring.

Bordeaux paste
Dissolve 100 g of copper sulphate and 100 g of quick lime each in 500 ml of water separately. Mix together to make one litre of the paste.

Cheshunt compound
Weigh 60 g copper sulphate and 330 g of ammonium carbonate. These two are well powdered and thoroughly mixed. The dry mixture is stored in an airtight glass container for 24 hours before use. About 25 g of this mixture is dissolved in a little hot water and solution is made up to 8 litres with cold water and used for soil drenching.
 

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Appendix 9
 

FUMIGANTS AND ITS USE

(For restricted use only)

Aluminium phosphide

 

Aluminium phosphide can be used for fumigating rat burrows and for control of pests infesting stored grains. This is available as Celphos or as Aluminium Phosphide tablets (3g) or pellets. For rat control, locate the burrows which contain live rats. For this, seal all burrow openings with mud in evenings and examine the closed burrows next day. If the mud seal is opened, such burrows are marked as live ones. In such live burrows, introduce aluminium phosphide tablets @ 1-2 per burrow and seal off the openings immediately. For fumigating grains and grain products under cover, use aluminium phosphide @ 1-2 tablets per tonne of grains, giving an exposure period of 5 days followed by aeration for a day. For room fumigation, use 5-7 tablets for every 28 cubic metre storage space. This has to be used under strict supervision of the approved pest control operators.

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Citation:
Kerala Agricultural University. 2011. Package of Practices Recommendations: Crops.

14th Edition. Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur. 360p.